Abdul Malik Omar

Keywords: Shūrā, Digital Shūrā, Fifth Domain, Political Space, Political Participation



Al-Qur’ān, translated by A. Ali (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993) cited in Shavit, Uriya, Is Shūrā a Muslim Form of Democracy? Roots and Systemization of a Polemic, Middle Eastern Studies, volume46, issue 3, 2010, pp. 349-374. 

Abdul Aziz, A., Governance in a Contemporary Islamic Negara, The Journal of Islamic Governance, issue 1, 2015, pp. 1-9, available at: 
http://islamicgovernance.org/IssueDownload.aspx?id=1 cited in Abdul Rahman, Hanif, Amin Abdul Aziz, Muhamad Adib Ibrahim, Noor-Arpah Suhaili, Ahmad Zahid Daud, and Lin Naing, Development and Validation of Islamic Governance Examination Tool in Healthcare Settings, International Journal of Health Governance, volume25, issue 1, (2020), pp. 57-67.  

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Bernstein, Richard J., The Normative Core of the Public Sphere,Political Theory, volume 40, issue 6, (2012),  pp. 767-778.

Cammack, P., Dunne, M., Hamzwy, A., Lynch, M., Muasher, M., Sayigh, Y., & Yahya, M., Arab Fractures: Citizens, States, and Social Contracts, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC, (2017).

Diamond, Larry, Liberation Technology,Journal of Democracy, volume21, issue 3, (2010), pp. 69-83.

Khan, Muqtedar. What is Islamic Democracy? The Three Cs of Islamic Governance,Caliphates and Islamic Global Politics, (2014), p. 79.

Klischewski, Ralf. When Virtual Reality Meets Realpolitik: Social Media Shaping the Arab Government–Citizen Relationship,Government Information Quarterly, volume31, issue 3, (2014), pp. 358-364.

Hamdan, Mahani, Pg KhairulRijal Pg Haji Abdul Rahim and Hajah Asiyah az-Zahra Haji Ahmad Kumpoh, Shūrā: From Principle to Practice, The Journal of Islamic Governance, issue 4, (2018), islamicgovernance.org/jig4-p4/2.

Malik, Abdul.  The Whole-of-Nation Approach: The Case of Brunei Darussalam, Wawasan 2035, and the 4th Industrial Revolution, in Global Challenges to Improving Public Services and Government Operation, IGI Global, 2020 (To be published).

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4Brian, J. G., and Mehtab, S. K., The Future Global Muslim Population, Projections for 2030, (2010).

Mulderig, Chloe M. An Uncertain Future: Youth Frustration and the Arab Spring, (2013).

Mesch, Gustavo S., The Internet and Youth Culture,The Hedgehog Review, volume11, issue 1, (2009), pp. 50-60.

Omar, Abdul Malik.  Digital Era Governance and social media: The Case of Information Department Brunei, In Employing Recent Technologies for Improved Digital Governance, IGI Global, (2020), pp. 19-35.

6BBC, The Arab World in Seven Charts: Are Arabs Turning Their Backs on Religion? 2019, (retrieved 24 sept 2020).

Shahrin, Alawi & Iznan Tarip. More Critical Thinkers for Islamic Governance, Thought Paper Series No. 2, The Journal of Islamic Governance, 2020, islamicgovernance.org/tp2.

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