Abdul Malik Omar

Keywords: Shūrā, Digital Shūrā, Fifth Domain, Political Space, Political Participation

References

 

Al-Qur’ān, translated by A. Ali (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993) cited in Shavit, Uriya, Is Shūrā a Muslim Form of Democracy? Roots and Systemization of a Polemic, Middle Eastern Studies, volume46, issue 3, 2010, pp. 349-374. 


Abdul Aziz, A., Governance in a Contemporary Islamic Negara, The Journal of Islamic Governance, issue 1, 2015, pp. 1-9, available at: 
http://islamicgovernance.org/IssueDownload.aspx?id=1 cited in Abdul Rahman, Hanif, Amin Abdul Aziz, Muhamad Adib Ibrahim, Noor-Arpah Suhaili, Ahmad Zahid Daud, and Lin Naing, Development and Validation of Islamic Governance Examination Tool in Healthcare Settings, International Journal of Health Governance, volume25, issue 1, (2020), pp. 57-67.  


Al-Turabi, Hasan, Ziauddin Sardar, Mahmood Jamal, and Marc Zuber, The Islamic State, Voices of Resurgent Islam241, (1983).
 


Bernstein, Richard J., The Normative Core of the Public Sphere,Political Theory, volume 40, issue 6, (2012),  pp. 767-778.
  


Cammack, P., Dunne, M., Hamzwy, A., Lynch, M., Muasher, M., Sayigh, Y., & Yahya, M., Arab Fractures: Citizens, States, and Social Contracts, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC, (2017).
 


Diamond, Larry, Liberation Technology,Journal of Democracy, volume21, issue 3, (2010), pp. 69-83.
 


Khan, Muqtedar. What is Islamic Democracy? The Three Cs of Islamic Governance,Caliphates and Islamic Global Politics, (2014), p. 79.
 


Klischewski, Ralf. When Virtual Reality Meets Realpolitik: Social Media Shaping the Arab Government–Citizen Relationship,Government Information Quarterly, volume31, issue 3, (2014), pp. 358-364.
 


Hamdan, Mahani, Pg KhairulRijal Pg Haji Abdul Rahim and Hajah Asiyah az-Zahra Haji Ahmad Kumpoh, Shūrā: From Principle to Practice, The Journal of Islamic Governance, issue 4, (2018), islamicgovernance.org/jig4-p4/2.
 


Malik, Abdul.  The Whole-of-Nation Approach: The Case of Brunei Darussalam, Wawasan 2035, and the 4th Industrial Revolution, in Global Challenges to Improving Public Services and Government Operation, IGI Global, 2020 (To be published).
 


Mark, Granovetter. The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited,Sociological Theory, (1983), pp. 201-233.
 


4Brian, J. G., and Mehtab, S. K., The Future Global Muslim Population, Projections for 2030, (2010).
  


Mulderig, Chloe M. An Uncertain Future: Youth Frustration and the Arab Spring, (2013).
 


Mesch, Gustavo S., The Internet and Youth Culture,The Hedgehog Review, volume11, issue 1, (2009), pp. 50-60.
 


Omar, Abdul Malik.  Digital Era Governance and social media: The Case of Information Department Brunei, In Employing Recent Technologies for Improved Digital Governance, IGI Global, (2020), pp. 19-35.
 


6BBC, The Arab World in Seven Charts: Are Arabs Turning Their Backs on Religion? 2019, (retrieved 24 sept 2020).
 


Shahrin, Alawi & Iznan Tarip. More Critical Thinkers for Islamic Governance, Thought Paper Series No. 2, The Journal of Islamic Governance, 2020, islamicgovernance.org/tp2.
 


Silver, Nate. The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail–but Some Don’t, Penguin, Harvard, 2012.
 


Social, We Are, Hootsuite (2020), Digital 2020-July Global Statshot report, 2020, 
https://wearesocial.com/blog/2020/07/more-than-half-of-the-people-on-earth-now-use-social-media