Widad Abdul Aziz

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Unity among Muslims is prescribed in Islam, which requires an ummatic concordance among a people already united in the belief in one God, one Book, one Prophet, one religion, and one qiblah. Yet, towards realising the prescribed ummatic unity, Allah the Most Perfect, has not erred in making mankind into various nations and tribes, thus allowing for the existence of a wide variety of differences in language, culture, race and, of course, opinions. The Divine prescription for unity within a disparate Ummah creates a paradoxical situation that often leads to arguments and discord. However, reflecting on these inherent differences only serves to affirm the functional relevance of the Sharī’ah to human society, in particular, in conflict management. The evolution of Islamic Law reveals numerous juristic debates among the ulama that, of equal paradox, are actually beneficial for the Ummah. This paper discusses the principles of the Islamic ethics of disagreement by examining the Qur’anic ethical parameters in juristic differences observed by the Companions and pious ulama, which adheres them to the Divine prescription for ummatic unity.