Glenn Hardaker


The aim of this paper is to explore the ICT differences in access and use by Muslim in Islamic faith schools, and ICTs’ perceived influence on learning. Our research explores ICT differences in the context of Muslim learners and it is  distinctive in adopting the premise that there is a unity in Muslim cultural identity that increasingly transcends ethnicity and gender. As a proxy for our research, we use an Islamic understanding of cultural identity. We defined culture as the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared, operate unconsciously , and that define, in an intuitive way, our selves and the environment. This shares an affinity with an Islamic understanding of humanity and the environment, which is represented by three interrelated dimensions of Fitrah  (human nature), khilāfah (vicegerent) and Dīn (religion). These dimensions demonstrate that the teachings of the Qur’ān are integral to cultural and religious identity. It is suggested that the impetus for learning is based on the realisation that pedagogy requires an appreciation by pupils that knowledge is derived from a teacher and experiences. The realisation is of particular importance in the field of Islamic education. The concept of revealed and acquired knowledge being equally accepted in Islamic schools for teaching and learning and this shapes, in turn, cultural identity that may influence ICT difference in access and use. This paper provides an overview of the characteristic features of ICT access, use and difference in the context of Islamic schools. We conclude with some tentative suggestions to support an inclusive approach towards ICT provision.